DOCG Italian Wines: Disciplinary for the production of Chianti Classico DOCG wine

DOCG Italian Wines: Disciplinary for the production of Chianti Classico DOCG wine

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Production regulations - Chianti Classico DOCG

DM 07.03.2014

Production disciplinary of the controlled and guaranteed denomination of origin of the wine
Chianti Classico

Article 1
(Denomination and wines)

1.1 The Chianti Classico controlled and guaranteed designation of origin is reserved for red wine which meets the conditions and requirements established in this specification

Article 2
(Ampelographic base)

    • Chianti Classico wine must be obtained from grapes produced in the production area delimited by the following art. 3 and coming from vineyards having, within the company, the following ampelographic composition:
      • Sangiovese from 80% to 100%.

Red berried grapes from vines suitable for cultivation in the Tuscany Region can also contribute to the production up to 20% of the area registered in the vineyard register. These vines, registered in the National Register of vine varieties for wine grapes, approved with Ministerial Decree May 7, 2004 and subsequent updates, are shown in Annex 1 of this specification.

Article 3
(Grape production area)

    • The production area of ​​the Chianti Classico controlled and guaranteed designation of origin wine is the area delimited by an interministerial decree of 31 July 1932, confirmed with article 5 of Presidential Decree 930 of 12.7.1963, by article 3 of Presidential Decree 9 August 1967, by article 3. of the Presidential Decree of 2 July 1984 and by article 5 of Law 164 of 10.2.1992, by article 6 of the Legislative Decree of 8 April 2010, no. 61, published in the Official Gazette no. 96 of 26.04.2010, and from article 3 of the disciplinary of

      production annexed to the Ministerial Decree of 5 August 1996, regulated autonomously pursuant to the aforementioned art. 5 of the law 10 February 1992 n. 164 and article 6 of the Legislative Decree 8 April
      2010, n. 61.

        • This area is thus delimited:

      Starting from the description of the border of the part of this area that belongs to the province of Siena, we take as a starting point the one where the border between the two provinces of Siena and Arezzo is crossed by Borro Ambrella della Vena at Pancole in the municipality of Castelnuovo Berardenga .
      From this point the border follows the Ambra stream and an unnamed tributary of it until the Ciarpella farm, then the mule track that leads to the Casa al Frate farm. From here it follows a virtual line to the Ombrone (altitude 298).
      From here, following a mule track, it reaches an altitude of 257, where it meets a cart track, which opens onto the road to Castelnuovo Berardenga. It goes up said road up to an altitude of 354. From here it follows the Malena Morta ditch until its confluence with Borro Spugnaccio; then still along said ditch of the Malena Morta up to Pialli (altitude 227). Then follows for a short distance the ditch Malena Viva, and then turns for a virtual line passing through S.Lucia (252 and 265 m) towards Arbia. Reached this stream, it goes up along the administrative border between the municipalities of Siena and Castelnuovo Berardenga.
      From here the border of the area continues to coincide with the administrative ones of Siena, Castelnuovo Berardenga, Castellina, Monteriggioni and Poggibonsi, until it meets, at the Borro di Granaio, the border of the province of Florence, which follows up to the Le Valli farm . Then it follows the municipal road touching S.Giorgio and the sources of Cinciano, and continuing until it meets again the provincial border, which is also the one between the municipalities of Poggibonsi and Barberino, then the Drove torrent, entering the province of Florence. At this point we begin the description of the border of the part of this area which belongs to the province of Florence. For the first part, the said border follows the Drove torrent to the Mulino della Chiara, where it meets the administrative border between the municipalities of Tavarnelle and Barberino, which it follows for a short distance, and then bends a little east along another torrent, passing through Biricucci and Belvedere until meeting immediately after the S. Donato-Tavernelle road which follows up to Morocco; and then, with a virtual line that passes through Figlinella, it reaches Sambuca, where it meets the Pesa stream. Always following the course of the stream, it coincides for the first part with the administrative border between the municipalities of S.Casciano Val di Pesa and Tavarnelle, then finds the stream after Ponte Rotto. From this point the boundary of the area coincides with the administrative boundaries of the municipalities of San Casciano and Greve.
      Here we return to the province of Siena and the border of the Chianti Classico area coincides with the administrative one of the municipalities of Radda in Chianti and Gaiole, and for a short stretch of Castelnuovo Berardenga, until we find the starting point for the description of this area.

    Article 4
    (Rules for viticulture)

        • The environmental and cultivation conditions of the vineyards destined for the production of Chianti Classico wine must be the traditional ones of the area and in any case only those suitable for conferring specific quality characteristics on aluva, must and wine.
        • The planting layouts, the training systems and the pruning systems must be such as not to modify the peculiar characteristics of the grapes and the wine. In particular, any form of breeding on a horizontal roof, such as a tent, is prohibited. Any forcing practice is prohibited. However, the practice of emergency irrigation is allowed.
    • For the purposes of enrollment in the vineyard register, therefore, only the vineyards of suitable hilly position and orientation, whose soils - located at an altitude not exceeding 700 meters above sea level, are mainly made up of sandy, limestone and marly substrates clayey, from sands and pebbles.

The vineyards located in humid soils, on valley bottoms and finally the predominantly soils of Pliocene clay and in any case strongly clayey, even if falling within the defined area, are to be considered unsuitable.

    • In the production area referred to in art. 3 it will not be possible to plant and register vineyards in the Chianti DOCG vineyard register or to produce “Chianti” DOCG and “Chianti” Superiore DOCG wines.
    • At the time of planting, the minimum density of the vines per hectare must be 4400 vines.
    • The maximum production of grapes allowed per hectare is T. 7.5 and the average yield per vine cannot exceed 2 kg.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the previous legislation applies to systems built before the entry into force of this specification.

    • In favorable vintages, the quantities of grapes obtained and to be destined for the production of wines with a controlled and guaranteed denomination of origin "Chianti Classico" must be reported within the above limits provided that the overall production does not exceed 20% of the limits, without prejudice to the grape / wine yield limits for the quantities in question.
    • The maximum yield of the grapes in finished wine must not exceed 70%. If this yield exceeds the percentage indicated above, but not more than 75%, the surplus will not be entitled to the denomination of controlled and guaranteed origin; beyond this percentage limit the right to the controlled and guaranteed designation of origin for the entire product lapses.
    • The grapes destined for winemaking must be subjected to prior sorting, if necessary, in order to ensure the wine capable of becoming "Chianti Classico" with a minimum natural alcoholic strength by volume of 11.50% vol.
    • The transformation of the grapes into must of any complementary varieties referred to in art. 2 and the subsequent processing in wine can take place, in whole or in part, separately, provided that the assembly of the wines thus obtained with the wine deriving from the grapes of the Sangiovese variety is carried out before the request for certification of the relative batch required by law in force and / or before any marketing referred to in the next point.
    • The person who intends to market a batch of bulk wine destined for the Chianti Classico DOCG in the production area, must notify the appointed Inspection Body at least 2 working days before the transfer itself. This batch of wine destined for the DOCG Chianti Classico, object of marketing, must respond to the chemical-physical characteristics provided for in the following art. 6 and, if necessary, have been assembled according to the provisions of the previous point.
    • The vineyards can be used for the production of Chianti Classico wine only from the third year of the plant. However, in this 3rd year the maximum allowed production of grapes is reduced to 40% and therefore from 7.5 to 3 T./ha.

Article 5
(Rules for winemaking)

    • The vinification, conservation and aging operations must be carried out within the production area delimited in the previous art. 3.
    • However, they are allowed with the authorization of the Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies, subject to preliminary investigation by the Tuscany Region and favorable opinion from the Chianti Classico Wine Consortium, in cellars located outside the aforementioned territory, but not more than ten kilometers in line from the border, provided that these wineries are pre-existing on January 1, 2008 and that they belong to companies that vinify them, individually or collectively, grapes suitable for the production of Chianti Classico obtained from their own vineyards or under management.

The authorizations issued to date remain valid.

    • Bottling and bottle refinement operations must be carried out within the production area delimited in the previous article 3.

In accordance with art. 8 of Reg. 607/2009, bottling or packaging must take place in the aforementioned defined geographical area to safeguard the quality and reputation of the Chianti Classico DOCG wine, guarantee its origin and ensure the effectiveness of the relative controls.

    • However, wineries with authorization to make wine outside the area pursuant to paragraph 2 of this article may also carry out bottling and / or refinement operations in bottle of wine from the vinification of suitable grapes in the same company center. to become "Chianti Classico" obtained from own vineyards or managed individually or collectively.

All the bottling authorizations issued to date remain valid.
Furthermore, in the presence of particular contingent situations and in any case for a transitional period not exceeding three years, bottling and / or bottle aging operations may be permitted, subject to the favorable opinion of the Chianti Classico Wine Consortium, upon authorization by the Ministry agricultural, food and forestry policies to wineries located in the provinces of Florence and Siena and adjacent to the aforementioned provinces within the Tuscany Region, under the following conditions:

      • the cellars belong to companies that have already bottled “Chianti Classico” wine in the production area for at least 10 years.
      • these operations concern wine that has been transferred already Chianti Classico DOCG certified and are carried out within the term of validity of the certification itself.
    • In winemaking only local, fair and constant practices permitted by current legislation are allowed.
    • Enrichment is allowed under the conditions established by EU and national regulations, without prejudice to the maximum production of wine per hectare and compliance with the minimum natural alcoholic strength of the grapes referred to in Article 4.

Any enrichment must be made either with concentrated must produced with grapes originating in the Chianti Classico wine production area, or with rectified concentrated must or grape sugar.

    • Chianti Classico wine can be released for consumption only from 1 October of the year following the harvest.

Chianti Classico wine destined for Riserva can be released for consumption only after being subjected to at least 24 months of aging, of which aging in bottle for at least 3 months. The practice of refining Chianti Classico wine destined for Riserva may also be carried out outside the wine-making area, provided that the label and substitute band of the State Mark are already applied on the bottles.
The aging period is calculated from January 1st of the year following the harvest.

Article 6
(Consumer characteristics)

    • The wine with controlled and guaranteed denomination of origin Chianti Classico, upon release for consumption, must meet the following characteristics:
      • clearness: clear;
      • color: ruby that can sometimes become according to the intense and deep origin;
      • smell: floral notes of violets and irises combined with a typical red fruit character. Fine spicy and balsamic notes in some reserves and selections;
      • flavor: harmonious, dry (with a maximum of 4 gr./l of reducing sugars), savory, good tannins which is refined over time to the soft velvety;
      • minimum total alcoholic strength by volume: 12.00%; vol, for the Reserve 12.50% vol;
      • total minimum acidity: 4.5 g / l;
      • non-reducing extract: 23.0 g / l.

Article 7
(Labeling, designation and presentation)

    • The controlled and guaranteed denomination of origin "Chianti Classico" is exclusively and compulsorily distinguished by the Gallo Nero brand in the graphic and literal form attached to this specification (Annex no. 2) in inseparable combination with the Chianti Classico denomination.

This mark is always inserted in the substitute band of the state mark provided for by current legislation.
The packers also have the right to separately affix the "Gallo Nero" brand printed and distributed exclusively by the Consortium for the protection of Chianti Classico wine, on the neck of the bottle.
The use of the "Gallo Nero" brand is handled directly by the Chianti Classico wine protection consortium, which must also distribute it to non-members of the same economic and usage conditions reserved for its members.

    • In the designation of Chianti Classico wine, the term vineyard can be used provided that it is followed by its relative toponym or traditional name, that the winemaking and storage of the wine take place in separate containers and that this mention, followed by its relative toponym or traditional name, is reported both in the grape report, and in the registers and accompanying documents and appearing in the appropriate regional list pursuant to art. 6 paragraph 8, of the legislative decree n. 61/2010.
    • The use of mentions that refer to names or social reasons or to individual or collective brands that have no laudative meaning or are not such as to mislead the buyer regarding the origin and nature of the product, is allowed, in compliance with the specific regulations in force.
    • It is also allowed to use mentions referring to areas from which the grapes from which the wine was actually obtained come, provided that these mentions, other than the toponyms of the vineyards, have been recognized according to the procedure provided for by current legislation on the matter.
    • On the bottles or other containers containing the Chianti Classico wine for release for consumption must always appear the year of production of the grapes.
    • In the labeling it is forbidden to add any qualification other than those provided for in this specification, including the adjectives extra, fine, chosen, selected, superior, old and similar.
    • The term Classico in the labeling of wines that meet the requirements established by this specification must always follow the word Chianti and be reported in the same typeface as those used for it.

Article 8.

    • For the Chianti Classico controlled and guaranteed designation of origin wine, it is allowed to be released for consumption only in glass containers of the Bordeaux bottle type in all permitted formats and Tuscan flask as defined in its characteristics by art. 1 paragraph 2 lett. c) of law 82 of 20 February 2006.
    • It is also forbidden to use used flasks.
    • The bottles or flasks, containing the Chianti Classico wine, intended for sale, must be, also as regards the shape and clothing, suitable for the traditional characteristics of a fine wine.
    • For the packaging of Chianti Classico wine, only the cork stopper must be used. Containers with crown caps or tear-off caps for capacities up to 0.250 liters are an exception.

Article 9.
(Link with the geographical environment)

  • Geographic area information

A1) Description of the natural factors relevant for the link
The production area of ​​the controlled and guaranteed denomination of origin "Chianti Classico" covers 71,800 hectares, is located in the center of the Tuscany Region and includes part of the territory of the provinces of Florence (30,400 hectares) and Siena (41,400). In particular, the Municipalities of Greve in Chianti, Castellina in Chianti, Radda in Chianti, Gaiole in Chianti are entirely part of the area. Instead, the Municipalities of San Casciano Val di Pesa and Tavarnelle are partially included
The territory can be assimilated to a rectangular plate, hinged by the Chianti Mountains which constitute its eastern border; to the north the borders follow the course of the Greve river, to the west the Pesa and Elsa river, to the south the sources of the Ombrone and Arbia river.
Morphologically, the environment can be defined as a plateau, since it is a hilly complex with a base altitude of around 200 meters above sea level. and an average elevation not higher, in general, than 600, excavated with not prolonged but sometimes steep slopes. Geologically, the body of the region, articulated on the Chianti Mountains, is a shield of clayey shale (galestri) with insertions of scaly clays alternating with Alberese and fine limestone sandstones.
The soil is generally not very deep, recent, brown, with a structure ranging from clayey-sandy to pebbly with medium percentages of clay; chemically it is characterized by a modest quantity of organic substance, reduced presence in assimilable phosphorus, well endowed with exchangeable cations.
The hilly orography determines a considerable complexity of surface hydrography, with torrential watercourses and a considerable difficulty in water control also in relation to specific rainfall patterns.
The climate is continental, with temperatures even very low in winter - below 4-5 degrees, and dry and hot summers, when they rarely exceed 35 degrees. The temperature changes throughout the day are discreet, also due to a rather accentuated altitude. The annual rainfall is around 800/900 mm of rain, with a certain prevalence in late autumn and spring.
The vine has always been the main crop here for the excellent quality of its production.
A2) Description of the human factors relevant for the link
The territory described above is a land of ancient wine traditions of which there are Etruscan and Roman testimonies proper to the world of wine. In medieval times, Chianti was a land of constant battles between the cities of Florence and Siena and in that period, villages and abbeys, castles and strongholds were born, which were then partially transformed into villas and residences. It was therefore at the end of the Middle Ages that large spaces were dedicated to the cultivation of vines which gradually acquired economic importance and international fame.
The wine that was born in this land is mentioned in manuscripts, chronicles, historical documents since 1200. To the 1398 the first notary document dates back to which the name Chianti appears to refer to the wine produced in this area. Already in the 1600s, exports to England were no longer occasional.
The Chianti Classico production area is the first wine production area in the world to have been defined by law, with a call for 1716 of the Grand Duke of Tuscany Cosimo III. This announcement specified the boundaries of the areas within which Chianti wines could be produced (“for Chianti he remained determined and both. From Spedaluzzo to Greve; from there to Panzano, with all the Podesteria of Radda, which contains three thirds, that is Radda, Gajole and Castellina, reaching the border of the State of Siena ") and established a congregation to supervise the production, shipment, control against fraud and trade in wines (a sort of ancestor of Consortia).
Until the end of the 1700s, the wine from the Chianti area was produced using only the grapes of the Sangiovese grape variety; from the early 1800s the practice of mixing different varieties of grapes began to be applied to improve the quality of the wine produced.
At that time various blends were experimented, but it was Baron Bettino Ricasoli, between 1834 and 1837 to disclose the composition he considered most suitable for obtaining a red wine pleasant, sparkling and ready to drink and which would then become the basis of the official composition of the Chianti wine: 70% Sangioveto (local denomination for Sangiovese), 15% Canaiolo, 15% Malvasia; and the application of the Tuscan government's practice.
Since the production of the territory, at that time, unable to cope with the growing demand, we began to produce wine, with the systems and grapes used in Chianti, even in the neighboring territories, obtaining products that, at first, they were called "Chianti use", and which later were even sold as Chianti tout court.
The famous wine produced in the geographical area of ​​Chianti was therefore "imitated" in other parts of Tuscany making it necessary to create an organism that would protect it from plagiarism. To do this on May 14th 1924 a group of 33 producers creates the Consortium for the defense of Chianti wine and its brand of origin. In 1932 an inter-ministerial decree recognized the wine of the area of ​​the most ancient Chianti origin the right to make use of the "Classic" specification as it was produced in the historical area. It was therefore on this occasion that the Chianti Classico denomination was definitive for the first time.
At the end of a 70-year process with the decree of 5 August 1996, Chianti Classico wine is recognized as independent from generic Chianti with a specific specification.
The producers of this denomination have always privileged the use of the indigenous Sangiovese grape, so much so that the Chianti Classico wine can also be produced with 100% of this grape variety by perpetuating the maintenance of cultivation techniques that do not change the peculiar characteristics of the grape. In this regard, in 1987 a very important research project called "Chianti Classico 2000" began which selected and approved new clones of Sangiovese and Colorino.
The traditional forms of farming are represented by guyot and a derivation of it called "Tuscan archetto" and by the spurred cordon. The yields of grapes and wine per hectare are also established (75 quintals of grapes equal to 52.50 hectoliters of wine) which are the lowest in Italy. The vintage wine can be released for consumption no earlier than 1 October following the harvest while for the Riserva 24 months must be expected, at least 3 of which with bottle aging.
The management of the denomination is assigned and ensured by the Chianti Classico Wine Consortium founded in 1924, the first in Italy, an organization that encompasses all production categories (wine growers, winemakers, bottlers) and is representative of 90% of the production itself.

Information on the quality and characteristics of the product essentially or exclusively attributable to the geographical environment.

The set of natural and human factors analyzed above makes the Chianti Classico wine fragrant, fruity, round with an intense red color and a dry, sapid taste, with good structure, alcohol content of not less than 12% and with moderate acidity.

Description of the causal interactions between the elements referred to in letter A) and the elements referred to in letter B)

The Sangiovese which mainly composes Chianti Classico wine, is a grape very sensitive to external factors and has the peculiarity of perfectly interpreting the characteristics of a soil and modifying its scents according to the soil in which it is born. It is no coincidence that it is only in a few areas of Tuscany that Sangiovese manages to have its best performances. Chianti Classico therefore has the floral bouquet of iris and violets typical of the sandstone soil of this area which constitutes the characterizing organoleptic element, with the aroma of berries that derive from the limestone component.
The climate, the hill topography, the morphology of the soils described above determine a bright environment particularly suitable for the correct ripening of the grapes. The high summer temperatures especially in the months of July and August, the excellent insolation that remains in the months of September and also October, the rather high temperature ranges between night and day, allow the grapes to ripen slowly and completely determining the organoleptic characteristics and chemicals typical of Chianti Classico, in particular the color, the bouquet, the alcohol content.
The yield of grapes per hectare that the experience of the winemakers has brought back to low levels, act on the grapes, determining a sugar level compatible with alcoholic grades that generally do not drop below 12 °.
The winemaking techniques can be different for the different vines that are generally collected and vinified initially separately to allow maximum expression of their specific organoleptic properties.
The professionalism of the Chianti winemakers proven by the history of this area makes it possible to continue the reputation of Chianti Classico wine and its history.

Article 10.
(References to the control structure)

    • Name and address of the control body:

Valoritalia s.r.l. - company for the certification of Italian quality and wine production Via Piave, 24
00187 - Rome
Tel .: +39 06 45437975
Fax: +39 06 45438908
e-Mail: [email protected]

    • The Valoritalia s.r.l Company - a company for the certification of Italian quality and wine production - is the control body authorized by the Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies, pursuant to article 13 of Legislative Decree no. 61/2010, which carries out the annual verification of compliance with the provisions of this specification, in accordance with article 25, par. 1, 1st paragraph, letter a) and c), and article 26 of EC Reg. No. 607/2009, for the products benefiting from the PDO, through a combined control methodology (systematic and sample) over the entire production chain (viticulture, processing, packaging), in accordance with the aforementioned article 25, par. 1, 2nd paragraph.
    • In particular, this verification is carried out in compliance with a predetermined control plan, approved by the Ministry, in compliance with the model approved with the Ministerial Decree of 14 June 2012, published in the Official Gazette. n. 150 of 29.06.2012.

Attachment 1
Complementary vines suitable for the production of DOCG CHIANTI CLASSICO wine

  • Abrusco N.
  • Aleatico N.
  • Alicante Bouschet N.
  • Alicante N.
  • Ancellotta N.
  • Barbera N.
  • Barsaglina N.
  • Bonamico N.
  • Black Armrest N.
  • Cabernet Franc N.
  • Cabernet Sauvignon N.
  • Calabrese N.
  • Calorie N.
  • Canaiolo Nero N.
  • Canina Nera N.
  • Carignano N.
  • Carmenere N.
  • Cesanese D’Affile N.
  • Ciliegiolo N.
  • Black Colombana
  • Colorino N.
  • Round Leaf N.
  • Gamay N.
  • Groppello di Santo Stefano N.
  • Groppello Gentile N.
  • Lambrusco Maestri N.
  • Malbech N.
  • Malvasia N.
  • Malvasia Nera di Brindisi N.
  • Malvasia Nera di Lecce N.
  • Mammolo N.
  • Mazzese N.
  • Merlot N.
  • Mondeuse N.
  • Montepulciano N.
  • Petit verdot N.
  • Pinot Noir N.
  • Pollera Nera N.
  • Blackthorn Gentile N.
  • Pugnitello N.
  • Rebo N.
  • Refosco dal Peduncolo rosso N.
  • Sagrantino N.
  • Sanforte N.
  • Slave Gentile N.
  • Syrah N.
  • Tempranillo N.
  • Teroldego N.
  • Vermentino Nero N.

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